Chronology Work and Life of Dick Raaymakers

A chronology of the life and works of Dick Raaymakers, as it was published in "Dick Raaymakers, Monograph".

Chronology Work and Life of Dick Raaymakers

Dick Raaymakers

Raaymakers with mother1930–1938

Bernardus Franciscus (Dick) Raaymakers is born in Maastricht on September 1, 1930, and remains the youngest in the family, with two brothers and one sister. The family lives in Maastricht until Dick is eight years old. His father is a high-ranking civil servant there with the Social Security Board.


In 1938, the family moves from colorful, exuberant Maastricht to the petit bourgeois industrial city of Eindhoven, where Raaymakers' father is now chairman of the Social Security Board. They move into their new house at Burghstraat 18, in a brand new development called Tuindorp, designed by the renowned modernist architect Dudok. Apart from a few isolated periods Raaymakers, also because of his later employment with Philips Inc., will continue to live in Eindhoven until 1963.


In 1947 Raaymakers is admitted to the Conservatory of the Roman-Catholic Schools in Tilburg and in 1950 he obtains his diploma Piano-A. In late 1953 Raaymakers concludes his studies at the Royal Conservatoire in The Hague with a diploma qualifying him to teach the piano.


Starting in early 1954, Raaymakers works for two years at Philips Inc. in Eindhoven at the production department "Radio and TV sets" to gain experience in the field of applied electronics. In the same period he takes a hands-on course in "radio and measurement technique" and by the end of 1955 he obtains the diploma of"radio mechanic" with the Dutch Radio Society.

From January 1956 until June 1960 Dick Raaymakers is employed as an assistant at the acoustic department of the Philips Physics Laboratory (NatLab) where he initially works at stereophony, ambiophony and artificial reverberation, and later in the field of electronic music where he is assistant to Henk Badings, Ton de Leeuw, Tom Dissevelt, Rudolf Escher and Prof. A.D. Fokker.

Raaymakers presents numerous concerts of electronic music, both in the Netherlands and abroad (including at the Brussels World Fair of 1958, at the Elektroakustische Experimentalstudio (Electro-Acoustic Experimental Studio) of Hermann Scherchen in Gravesano in 1959 and at the Tonmeistertagung (Sound Engineers' Conference)in Detmold in 1960).

For an assignment by Roelof Vermeulen (B Sc) of Philips Inc. Raaymakers – under the alias Kid Baltan – writes the world's first popular electronic composition Song of the Second Moon in October 1957.

In December this is followed by the popular electronic composition for three Ondes Martenots and piano, Night Train Blues, originally intended as the B-side of Song of the Second Moon, but never released as such.

Raaymakers gives his first lectures on electronic music at various locations in the south of the Netherlands, an activity that he will continue practically uninterrupted until 2005. From 1966 on, he does so in addition to teaching at the Royal Conservatoire in The Hague, where he teaches many classes in the form of small performances and public lectures.


In January Raaymakers composes the short popular electronic composition Electronic Boogie Woogie, which is never officially released by Philips Inc.

The composition Colonel Bogey becomes the B-side of Song of the Second Moon. Colonel Bogey is an adaptation of the folksong of the same title, made very popular at the time by the movie Bridge on the River Kwai (David Lean, 1957). However, the original composer Kenneth Alford's widow refuses to authorize Baltan's arrangement and therefore the single never reaches the shops, ending up as one of Philips' promotional gifts.

Tube sleeve


In November Raaymakers composes the autonomous electronic composition Contrasts, consisting of three merging parts in which musical elements such as sound, melody, rhythm and dramatic form are set against each other. In 1963 this composition, written in only a few days, draws the attention of pianist Glenn Gould, who wishes to have the work performed at the 1964 Stratford Festival in Ontario, Canada. However, as Gould completely withdraws from concert practice around this time, the plan is never realized.

In December Contrast swins Raaymakers an encouragement award for young artists from the city of Eindhoven. He also makes an appearance, together with Tom Dissevelt, in the VARA television show Tussenspel to talk about their collaborative experiments in popular electronic music.


In May 1960, in very little time, Raaymakers writes Pianoforte, a composition in five parts consisting of an adapted recording of the interior of a piano as it is being "played" with various tools.

For Philips Inc., and produced by Cinecentrum in Hilversum, Raaymakers composes an especially designed electronic score for Direct Vision Story, an educational film by Dutch director Jan Moonen.

In late 1960 Raaymakers writes Mechanical Motions, a composition based on fragments from soundtracks he made for the films Direct Vision Story and Fuel for the Future. The piece is originally intended as an experimental recording, but is released by Philips as the B-side of Tom Dissevelt's single Intersections.

In the spring Raaymakers realizes The Stone Bridal Bed, a soundscape for a literary gramophone record. On this EP the Dutch author Harry Mulisch reads from his books Food for Psychologists and The Stone Bridal Bed. The record is released by Philips, and publisher De Bezige Bij.

In the beginning of June, Philips and Utrecht University start discussing the take-over of the Philips studio by the University. Raaymakers is appointed academic staff member as of June 1, 1960.

In November 1960, the former Philips studio is re-opened at the Plompetorengracht in Utrecht under the name STEM-studio. Within a few years, the studio will develop into the famous Institute for Sonology. Raaymakers and STEM-studio manager R. Vermeulen (B Sc) disagree about whether music or science has priority and the conflict leads to Raaymakers' resignation from the University in April 1962.

Discussions now start about establishing a new electronic studio at the University of Amsterdam.


In the period of January–March Raaymakers writes his first composition in the STEM-studio. It is entitled Five Sculptures and consists of modulated clusters of synthetic sinus tones, which are stacked.

In June Raaymakers makes the soundscape for a shareholders meeting of Philips Inc. A few months later he is commissioned by the London production company World Wide Pictures to write the film score Crystal Diode-1.


On December 3, 1961, the Mood Engineering Society is founded in Amsterdam by Dutch artist Willem de Ridder, together with, among others, Dick Raaymakers, Misha Mengelberg, Peter Schat and Jaap Spek. The MES organizes musical performances integrating music, theater and visual art, following the lead of John Cage and Nam June Paik who organize similar concert experiments elsewhere in Europe. Atone of these MES concerts Pianoforte is performed (i.e. Raaymakers plays the tape).


Commissioned by Sofedi Films Brussels Raaymakers produces the musical piece The Television Tube.

In January 1963, Raaymakers, together with Jan Boerman, installs a private studio in The Hague. It will remain there on the top floor of Boerman's home in Daendelstraat 80 until the summer. On the ground floor Raaymakers has a modest working and living space to deal with correspondence and other administrative matters. The house is scheduled for demolition in a few months. The industrial film music The Television Tube is produced here.


As demolition is now imminent, in September the studio is moved from Daendelstraat to a condemned property at Zuilingenstraat 25 in The Hague's city center. Raaymakers also moves in and in spite of continuous threats that this house will also be demolished very soon, he will stay in the house for more than 20 years. It is not pure coincidence that the new studio is in the direct vicinity of the Royal Conservatoire, with which the studio will begin a close collaboration a few years later. Despite the simple facilities of the studio, some key works are produced there in the next few years, such as Five Canons, Erlkönig Ballad, the film scores Bekaert and Sidmar, the three Mao pieces Chairman Mao Is Our Guide, The Long March and May Mao Live!, and also Quartet, Quintet, The Graphic Method Tractor and The Graphic Method Bicycle.

During the summer Raaymakers completes three compositions for film music for the London production company World Wide Pictures, entitled Radiation-1, S.C.3 and Transistor-1. In December he composes the Bell Tune, a tune for one of the educational films of Philips Inc.

On December 16, Raaymakers delivers a lecture entitled "Structures in Serial Music" before the Academic Society in Eindhoven.


Raaymakers now focuses all his attention on composing. Between January and September, six musical pieces are conceived. Commissioned by Philips Inc., he produces the Coppelia Tune and the Sign Tune, both intended for educational films by Philips. He also composes Aioon and, commissioned by Sofedi Films in Brussels, Ronquieres. Important works from May 1964 are Canon I and Canon II. They are the start of his Canon series, a series of five compositions in which a single electric pulse is repeated in five different ways according to a fixed schedule. Canon I: super augere (about extension) consists of a gradual multiplication of eight micro tones. Canon II: super imprimere (about imprinting) is an adaptation of Canon I in which static renders the contours of the original composition almost indiscernible.


In February, movie director Stanley Kubrick repeatedly tries to contact Dick Raaymakers. Kubrick is looking for music for his next film 2001: A Space Odyssey. Raaymakers shows no interest.

In March Raaymakers and Dutch composer Kees van Baaren, then director of the Royal Conservatoire in The Hague, discuss plans to establish an electronic studio at the Conservatoire. They also talk to G.M. Koenig from STEM (renamed Institute for Sonology in 1967) in Utrecht about a possible co-ordination between both institutes. In September 1965, the studio is set up and unofficially put in to use. In September 1966 Raaymakers is appointed teacher of "electronic music" at the Royal Conservatoire (a position he will hold until his retirement in 1995).In April 1967, the studio at the Conservatoire is officially opened.

In 1965 the compositions Canon III, Canon IV and Ein Reiterstück are produced. Canon III: super addere (about adding up) consists of a repetition and addition of a series of crackling noises leading to the formation of layers of sounds.In Canon IV: super substrahere (about subtraction) increasingly larger gaps form in initially continuous fields of sound. At the end of the composition only the gaps still "sound," marked off by snippets of sound. Ein Reiterstück is a montage of soundscapes for a film made by the Dutch Economic Information Service.


Raaymakers designs an electronic soundscape for the Economic Information Service. He also makes Radio Project, a design for a music theater with live-electro-instrumental sound manipulation of various sound objects such as an electric string quartet, radio sets, gramophones and tape recorders. In May, he starts work on The Art of Opening an Exhibition, his first music theater production. The piece is intended for the opening of an exhibition by Dutch visual artist Arras (Thomas Venema) and it is premièred in The Hague on 24 June 1966.


Raaymakers composes the signature tune in for the commercial breaks (STER) on Dutch public broadcast television, as well as the soundtrack Bekaert, a Different Word for Steel Wire for a promotional film of the Belgian steel company Bekaert, directed by G.A. Magnel for Sofedi Films Brussels.

Six new compositions are produced this year: Erlkönig Ballad, Canon V, Plumes, Flux, Pete Music and Sound Decor. Erlkönig Ballad is a continuation of Radio Project. Unlike the first four canons Canon V: super ‘Dis-moi ...' is produced in a matter of hours. Between fragments of static we hear the voice of Edith Piaf in a musical adaptation of Franz Kafka's last short story "Josephine the Singer, or The Mouse Folk" (1924). The composition Plumes is made at the time of the Six-Day War between Israel and Egypt, Jordan, and Syria and is based on a collage of the same title by Francis Picabia from 1921. In Plumes, arid, flat, and thus desert-like fields of sound are generated by overdriving and destabilizing sound equipment. Flux is realized shortly after Plumes and also involves destabilizing sound equipment. In Flux two acoustic force fields from loudspeakers oppose each other at a frequency of 50 Hz. The piece Pete Music is film music for the artist Piet van den Heuvel from The Hague. Sound Decor, finally, is a composition for the "Brabo-Antwerpen-project"commissioned by Dutch photographer Martien Coppens.

In September 1967 Raaymakers, together with composers Peter Schat, Konrad Boehmer, Jan van Vlijmen, Misha Mengelberg, Louis Andriessen and Reinbert de Leeuw, founds STEIM, a research laboratory and development platform for live electro-instrumental music in Amsterdam. On the occasion Raaymakers introduces the principle and the very first prototype ofthe "ideophone" – the loudspeaker that doesn't need a composer – to under line his argument for an electronic studio without loudspeakers. In November 1968 he is technically involved in the performance of Jan van Vlijmen's Interpolations for orchestra and electronics in the concert hall De Doelen in Rotterdam (this performance is regarded as the first official public manifestation of STEIM). Through STEIM, at the Holland Festival in June 1969, he is technically involved in the performance of the collective public opera Reconstruction(music: Louis Andriessen, Reinbert de Leeuw, Misha Mengelberg, Peter Schat and Jan van Vlijmen; libretto: Hugo Claus and Harry Mulisch).

In late November 1967 Raaymakers organizes Rehearings, multimedia manifestations that take place at the Royal Conservatoire in The Hague. He also writes a proposal for the realization of a number of educational open-form compositions (including Plus-Minus by Karlheinz Stockhausen from 1963).

Raaymakers starts work on the Graphic Quartet. In a period of three months he designs an electric circuit with four string instruments, four performers, and four assistants in a theatrical setting. He produces a minutely notated graphical score of 26 pages,measuring 75 by 50 centimeters (in 1971, for practical reasons, this score is reduced to a version with only four "performance indication sheets" and four small "note books" entitled Quartet).

Graphic Quartet  

He gives lectures on electronic music at various locations in both the Netherlands and Belgium.


Raaymakers develops film music for a promotional film of the Belgian steel company Sidmar.

In December, work gets under way for the Ideophones, a series of installations of loudspeakers that produce sounds themselves, initially called "electro phones" and "hydrophones." Ideophone 1 is completed in October 1970, Ideophone 2 in September 1970, and Ideophone 3 in November 1970. These works are exhibited together for the first time in 1971 at the Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam, as part of the exhibition "Sound <=> Watching: three audio-visual projects."

Ideophone I


For the May concerts at the Royal Conservatoire, Raaymakers writes his instructional pieces Night Music and Chess Music. The first is a piece for wind instruments, fourstrings, an interactive waterfall and switching electronics; the second piece is a composition for two chess players, four strings, and switching electronics.


Raaymakers co-founds "Het Leven" (Life), an electro-instrumental improvisation group of students and teachers at the Royal Conservatoire in The Hague, for which he designs three instruction exercises: Quartet,The Long March and Quintet. For this group he also develops a battery-run, modular, small-scale "cascade system" of separate line amplifiers, modulators, filters, sinus generators, and mixing units.

In April, he starts work on Chairman Mao Is Our Guide, a performance consisting of a collage of sound and music fragments. After three performances in The Hague and Amsterdam the tape is completely erased for conceptual reasons.

In the fall, at the Gemeentemuseum (Municipal Museum) in The Hague Ideophone 1 is publicly displayed for the first time at the exhibition "Contrasts."

Raaymakers receives the Logos Award from the Logos Foundation (Ghent, Belgium)

Raaymakers delivers a lecture about his Canon series at the Institute for Sonology in Utrecht.


Together with works by Ton Bruynèl and Peter Struycken, Raaymakers' audio-visual constructions the Ideophones are part of the exhibition "Sound <=> Watching" at the Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam. At the museum, four conservatory students for the first time perform the music piece Quartet (at the time still called "Electric String Quartet").

Raaymakers writes the music theater piece The Long March. Commissioned by the city of Eindhoven, this composition is for eight performers with Chinese violins. The performers are communicating through an electric circuit and artificial space-switching, and they can pass on the notes they play to each other.

In the fall,together with art historian Albert Blankert, writer Jacq Vogelaar and composer Victor Wentink, he writes a collective project proposal for the Gemeentemuseumin The Hague. Their idea is to exhibit the three Ideophones in combination with a "learning exhibition" of three months. The proposal, entitled Exhibition of a School, is rejected.

By the end of December he starts work on Quintet, a composition for five performers (Chinese violins) and five observers (sinus generators). This work is performed only twice: Once at the Royal Conservatoire in The Hague, and once at STEIM in Amsterdam.

Raaymakers gives a lecture about his Canon series at STEIM in Amsterdam.


Entitled Three Ideophones, Three Learning Machines,the ideophones series is shown for the first time as a stand-alone exhibitionat the Gemeentemuseum The Hague.

As a teacher at the Royal Conservatoire he starts a series of lectures on the analysis of contemporary music.


In collaboration with Ton Hokken Raaymakers works at setting up a general course in recording techniques at the Royal Conservatoire. This study program effectively starts in 1983 as "Music Recording," with Raaymakers heading the new department in the first couple of years.


Raaymakers makes the music theater piece The Graphic Method Tractor. The work shows, in slow motion, 72 frames from Sergei Eisenstein's film The General Line(1928), while a musical box plays The Internationale, slowed down a 100 times.


In response tothe death of Mao Zedong in 1976, the work May Mao Live! is made in January. Raaymakers describes this music theater piece as an "audio-visual exercise in artificial sentiment." The performers consist of a "tableau vivant" of slides and artificial flowers, combined with fragments of Chinese songs, Strauss' Tod und Verklärung, animal sounds, and the sound of a thunderstorm.

The Gemeentemuseum The Hague rejects Actio in distans, a proposal for an exhibition about the plastic uniformity of archetypical electrical elements and components from the eighteenth and nineteenth century and similar primary forms of visual art, notably those of Minimal Art since 1960. A second concept for the museum, The Graphic Method, is not accepted either. This new concept deals with the plasticity of modern 20th-century image carriers and image machines in relation to their nineteenth-century predecessors.


The long essay "The Art of Machine Reading" is published in Raster: magazine in book format. Here Raaymakers uses metaphorical models to compare the design of mechanical and electric appliances. The essay receives a devastating review by Dutch writer W. F. Hermans in the daily newspaper NRC Handelsblad of November 10, followed by a short-lived but fierce polemic. Raaymakers responds to Hermans' attack with a letter to the editor in the NRC Handelsblad of December 1.

Raaymakers works on the idea for a book about the image formation of motion by means of technical devices: a "re-write" of the book La méthode graphique (The Graphic Method) by E.-J. Marey of 1878. These activities are a preparatory study for his book The Method (1985).

At the end of theyear, museum Het Kruithuis in 's-Hertogenbosch exhibits the score for the never performed Graphic Quartet, consisting of 26 pages measuring 75 by 50 centimeters with a total length of some twenty meters.


In the spring Raaymakers designs The Graphic Method Bicycle. In this performance, a cyclist steps off his bicycle in slow motion over a time span of thirty minutes, while he is pulled along by a wire and audio sensors register his heartbeat, respiration and overall physical effort. The piece is inspired by a chronophotographie from 1891 by E.-J. Marey.


Raaymakers gives a number of lectures in Amsterdam, Arnhem, and Rotterdam in which he discusses his works Quartet, The Graphic Method Tractor, The Graphic Method Bicycle, May Mao Live! and the Canon series.


In October Raaymakers produces the work Shhh!, music theater for tape and slide projector, and also the first in a long series of productions dedicated to the theme "Laurel & Hardy." With a projected moon moving along the ceiling as the only light source, the soundtrack of Laurel and Hardy's first sound-movie Night Owls (1930) sounds in the twilight. The moon is being moved as smoothly as possible by Raaymakers himself with a mobile, hand-operated slide projector over a time span of twenty minutes.

Throughout the year, Raaymakers gives lectures in Groningen, Middelburg and Bergen.



In July, Raaymakers starts work on four new projects, all sequels to Shhh! of 1981. In all of these productions, the soundtrack of Laurel and Hardy's Night Owls plays a central role. In the large-scale theater production Soundmen nine soundmen on a huge stage set reproduce the heavy and voluminous (falling) sounds from the original film version by operating enormous constructions, machineries, levers, handles, pulleys and trapdoors. Between 1982 and 1984 Dick Raaymakers also works on the design of a kinetic-pneumatic art work consisting of a construction in which heavy metal cubes move independently from each other. The cubes' movements are based on the movements of Laurel and Hardy: scaling walls, opening doors and climbing through windows. This piece, entitled The Soundwall, is never realized. The third piece, Ow!, has a similar theme. As in Soundwall, the performance is based on the obstacles that Laurel and Hardy have to overcome in Night Owls: doors, windows, and walls. Each fall from a wall or slamming of a door is reproduced by one of four percussionists by hitting timber. The last piece, The Microman, is a reduced and simplified version of a never realized idea for a grand music theater piece entitled The Soundman. One single performer enacts Laurel and Hardy's antics from Night Owls on a miniature scale as a "table theater." The first performance of the piece, in collaboration with the Appel Foundation, is on October 13, 1982, in the dissecting room of the former Amsterdam hospital "Binnengasthuis."

At a number of art academies and music institutes in Breda, Rotterdam, Groningen, Eindhoven, and Hilversum Raaymakers gives lectures on his Soundman cycle and his controversial essay "The Art of Machine Reading."


In Raster magazine J. Bernlef (ed.) publishes Raaymakers' essay "The Fall of Mussolini: a Forgotten Hollywood Project from 1930." It describes the plan by a movie director who calls himself Cassius, virtually unknown in Hollywood circles, to film the fall of Italian dictator and fascist leader Benito Mussolini – "a movie that, apart from a few still remaining sequences, was never completed." The article is the first manifestation of what is to become the music theater production The Fall of Mussolini (1995).

Raaymakers makes the composition Ping Pong, a radio report in stereo of a game of table tennis between Louis Andriessen and Cornelis de Bondt, commissioned by VPRO Radio. A mechanized version of thiswork, linking the original composition to a live performance without table tennis players is executed in 1996.

At the end of the year, preparation starts for the production, Come on!. The piece is an extension of The Microman, performed by three rivaling actors. It is premièred at the Holland Festival of 1984.


Raaymakers is the "main composer" at the Holland Festival 1984. Six works from the Soundman cycle are performed. Shhh!, Ow!, The Microman, The Soundwall, Come on! and Soundmen.

Raaymakers develops a performance for two actors, a tumbling machine, lighting and soundscape, an earlier version of which he has designed in the spring of 1982. The piece, Ecstasy, is dedicated to Josine van Droffelaar, member of the board of the art foundation De Appel in Amsterdam and a dear friend of Raaymakers. Josine van Droffelaar, and her partner and the entire staff of De Appel, have a fatal accident with a light aircraft near Habkern, Switzerland, on August 20, 1983. Ecstasy is also performed at the Holland Festival.



Start of the design of the Eight Labiles, an eight-part installation made of glass, transparent filmstrips and a motion mechanism, a commissioned work for the Government Offices Building in Arnhem.

Labile E

Raaymakers appears on a number of television shows. On April 24, NOS News has an item about the Holland Festival and one month after that he is a guest in the NOS program Omnibus. He is interviewed about Soundmen and Ecstasy. On June 6, Raaymakers is present at the live broadcast of the Gala of New Dutch Music, featuring hisshow Ow!. Shortly after that, the VPRO broadcasts his theater piece Soundmen. On October 20, he performs live at the Belgian TV station BRT in an item called "Art and Computer."

In Rome, he gives a lecture about The Microman.


In January, publishing company Bert Bakker releases The Method. The publication is intended as a study for a "rewriting" of Etienne-Jules Marey's La méthode graphique (1878), adapted to the technical achievements of the 20th century. The Method consists of hooked-up stanzas in which words imitate a mechanized movement. Excerpts from The Method have already appeared in 1982 in Raster magazine, issue 22.

For his music-theater piece Ecstasy Raaymakers is awarded the Matthijs Vermeulen Award by the Amsterdam Art Foundation. Jury members are Louis Andriessen, Reinbert de Leeuw and radio producer Edu Verhulst.

Dick Raaymakers appears in a documentary by Ramón Gieling about the composer Jan Boerman. In the dismantled sound studio he tells about his collaboration with Boerman in the early 1960s.

The conservatory of Groningen abandons the idea of realizing the Scheuer Machine, a kinetic light and color installation (roughly 10 x 5 meters) based on an original manuscript from 1789 by German music teacher Anton Scheuer about the harmony between tone and color. The work is designed for one of the facades of the conservatory's new building.


In May Raaymakers makes T-heo van V-elzen, a "proof of retro speech." Meticulously recorded words and sentences that are spoken backwards are played back in reverse, resulting in once again intelligible, flowing sentences. The composition is made on the occasion of the retirement of Theo van Velzen as director of the Gemeentemuseum The Hague.


In one weekend in May Raaymakers makes the music piece My!My!, an elegy for three violins and one clarinet lasting only a few minutes. The following Monday it is performed as part of a so-called "Kokoconcert" at the Royal Conservatoire in The Hague.

From 1987 until 1990 Raaymakers is a staff member at CAM, a new "Center for Audio-visual Media"at the Royal Conservatoire in The Hague.


Late November Raaymakers, together with video teacher Kasper van der Horst, realizes Sound Walk (later renamed Promenade), a performance for video andstereo tape. The work is part of a project around John Cage entitled Music for the Five Senses at the Royal Conservatoire.

Raaymakers appears in the VPRO television program Atlantis with an item about "the smallest sound." He plays several sound fragments fromhis Canon series, and explains his work.

He gives lectures in Arnhem, Utrecht, ‘s-Hertogenbosch and The Hague.


Since 1989 Raaymakers works on the sequel to The Method. Despite pre-publications in Raster magazine issues 50, 58 and 60, his A Brief Mechanics of the Open Form will never be published in a complete edition.

From August through November, Raaymakers is guest curator at Anti Qua Musica, a series of exhibitions and concerts at the Gemeentemuseum The Hague. The series' theme is the destructed musical instrument as an anti-art work. Raaymakers is represented with Tombeau de Glenn Gould, an installation consisting of three burned grand pianos, a disassembled Beethoven chair, light, and sound. In the concert series Raaymakers' composition Quartet is performed.

As part of the Anti Qua Musica concert series, Raaymakers gives an introduction about the concepts of "anti" and "open." He also delivers lectures in Tilburg and Groningen.


Raaymakers works on Hey-Hey!, the last piece in the Soundman cycle. As in the other variations in the cycle, Laurel and Hardy's first sound-film Night Owls is the source of inspiration. In an open setup, aided by assistants, a single actor accepts the challenge of a theatrical translation of the nine obstacles that Laurel and Hardy encounter in the movie.


In May, the first sketches are made of Der Fall Leiermann, a solo music theater piece in three acts, as a study for the later work Dépons/Der Fall. A disassembled tape recorder is hand-cranked like a street organ by a lonesome organ grinder while spatial sound fragments are played. Raaymakers started this project in 1991, and Der Fall Leiermann has been performed until 1996.


Since 1991 Raaymakers is involved in setting up the Image and Sound Interfaculty at the Royal Conservatoire in The Hague.

Raaymakers writes a proposal for a study course "Electric Music Theater," a major in music theater related to new media. (The idea for such a study program is based on what the Royal Conservatoire has to offer in terms of education, and on an international level, in "electronics" and "theater.")

Raaymakers is a collaborator for the "Auditorium Lectures" (1991–1993): a series of academic classes in the auditorium of the Gemeentemuseum The Hague about visual art, music, film, new media, and language. As part of the Flemish-Dutch Music Days he gives a master class about music theater at the Royal Music Conservatoire and the Logos Foundation in Ghent, in which he uses a study for Intona. He also gives lectures at various locations in the Netherlands.

In AVRO Radio's show about art Opium, Raaymakers demonstrates the principle of deconstructing microphones, an idea that he will develop further in his music theater piece Intona, one year later.


During the first two months of the year Raaymakers, together with percussionist/theater director Paul Koek and Theater Hollandia, works on Dépons/DerFall. In this music-theater piece for three actors, consisting of a prologue and three scenes, Raaymakers comments on Pierre Boulez's composition Répons (1981–1984) by using "falling" machines and techniques derived from the Japanese bunraku theater. On the occasion of this production Raaymakers is interviewed on January 11, on the NCRV radio show Schuim en As.

Raaymakers receives a lifetime's achievement award for his complete works from the Foundation for Visual Arts, Design and Architecture (BKVB).

By the end of the year Raaymakers starts work on the music-theater piece Intona. It is inspired by the work of futurist Luigi Russolo, the inventor of the so-called Intonarumori, and addresses the "twelve ways to silence a microphone." Amplified microphones are destroyed in twelve different ways, while reporting their own doom through loudspeakers.

As part of the series "Composers tell about their work," Raaymakers is a guest teacher at the Jan van Eyck Art Academy in Maastricht. He also gives lectures in The Hague, Rotterdam, Utrecht, ‘s-Hertogenbosch and Arnhem.

Fort Klank


In this year Raaymakers produces four music-theater pieces: Die glückliche Hand geöffnet, Fort Sound, Der Fall/Dépons and Probe. Die glückliche Hand geöffnet is made in January, in collaboration with the Interfaculty for Image and Sound, the Institute for Sonology and the composition department of the Royal Conservatoire in The Hague. It is a remake of the music-theater piece Die glückliche Hand by Arnold Schönberg from 1910–1913. The choirs Du Armer! from Die glückliche Hand geöffnet, with a description of the entire music-theater piece, are included in The Complete Tape Music of Dick Raaymakers, NEAR/Donemus, Amsterdam 1998.

Later in the year Raaymakers again collaborates with the Image and Sound Interfaculty. Together with colleagues Walter Maioli and Horst Rickels Fort Sound is produced, an audio-architectural project in Fort Asperen on the river Linge. The NOS TV News has a short item about it on June 12.


Meanwhile, Raaymakers is busy writing the big music-theater piece Der Fall/Dépons. The work is an extension of Der Fall Leiermann and Dépons/DerFall. In seven acts the phenomenon of "imitation" is treated exhaustively.

By year's end the first ideas are formed for Probe, a chamber music-theater piece for solo percussionist and video projection around the theme of imitation based on a scene from Karl Valentin's movie Orchester probe (1933).

In The Hague, Raaymakers gives lectures about the common ground between visual art and music, and about the art of imitation and repetition.


With the productions Der Fall/Dépons and Die glückliche Hand geöffnet Raaymakers wins the Matthijs Vermeulen Award of the Amsterdam Art Foundation for the second time. The jury consists of composers Konrad Boehmer and Henk van der Meulen, and former orchestra director Piet Veenstra.

Raaymakers is involved in establishing a "virtual institute," the School for Soundmen, based on an idea from the 1940s of Arnold Schönberg about an institute for "the musical training of sound technicians and the technical training of musicians."

In December Raaymakers collaborates in the music-theater piece Mondrian's Promenoir, a collective, multidisciplinary project of the Interfaculty Image and Sound and the Institute for Sonology of the Royal Conservatoire in The Hague about the relationship between Mondrian and music. In 1995, the Four Flourishes for solo cellist, four brass players, tape and switching electronics from Mondrian's Promenoir were treated by Raaymakers as an autonomous composition, which was later included (with a description of Mondrian's Promenoir) in The Complete Tape Music of Dick Raaymakers, NEAR/ Donemus, Amsterdam 1998.


Dick Raaymakers completes some of his biggest collective music-theater pieces: Der Stein, The Fall of Mussolini, Scheuer im Haag and Hermans Hand.

Der Stein is a "suitcaseopera" in five acts for two actors, about a decisive moment in the life of the virtually unknown eighteenth-century German music teacher Anton Scheuer (1734–1810): the theft and relocation of the boundary stone of the German town of Selters in the Taunus mountains.

The co-production The Fall of Mussolini is a collaboration with Theater Company Hollandia and Toneelgroep Amsterdam mixing, in thirteen Stages of the Cross, the demise of Benito Mussolini, recordings in the film studio of Hal Roach, and the novel De opstand van Guadalajara (The Guadalajara Uprising)(1937) by Dutch author J. J. Slauerhoff.

Scheuer im Haag is a full evening's collective music-theater piece by teachers and students of the Royal Conservatoire in The Hague, marking Raaymakers' retirement after almost thirty years as a teacher at the conservatory.

Hermans Hand is a music-theater piece. A number of episodes from the life of Dutch writer W .F. Hermans are enacted and playbacked in slow-motion.

In September/October Raaymakers realizes Volta, an electro-chemical installation with zinc plates, rags and hydrochloric acid that form an enormous galvanic element which feeds electric power to a tiny light bulb.

In late Octobe rseven of Raaymakers' works are performed at the Festival in the Branding in The Hague: Volta, Probe, Hermans Hand, Intona, El Vidriedo (a song from the finale of The Fall of Mussolini), Four Flourishes, Plumes and Flux 2 (a live performance of the original work for tape). The Gemeentemuseum The Hague exhibits the Death Machine, Door and Escape Car from The Fall of Mussolini.

Raaymakers receives the Ouburg Award 1995, a life time's achievement award from art center Stroom in The Hague, to honor his contribution to the development of visual arts in the Netherlands.

As guest teacher, in July he gives a lecture at the Theater Academy in Maastricht, in which he discusses the works Hermans Hand, Der Fall/Dépons and Scheuer im Haag. In November, together with Paul Koek and some ofthe actors, an audience discussion is held after a performance of The Fall of Mussolini in the former transformer station of the Westergasfabriek in Amsterdam.

Raaymakers appears as a guest on the VPRO TV art program De Plantage, broadcast on September 17. Interviewed by hostess Hanneke Groenteman he talks about winning the Ouborg Award for visual art, the performance Volta and the music-theater production Hermans Hand.

For the TV program Kunstmest Raaymakers, together with TV-hostess Mieke van der Weij, visits the Scryption Museum in Tilburg for an exhibition of the typewriter collection of W .F. Hermans, about whom Raaymakers made the music-theater production Hermans Hand.


Before a performance of Hermans Hand, Raaymakers takes part in a public discussion in Jazz Café Paradox in Tilburg. Earlier this year he gave a lecture in Utrecht, about his earlier works Der Fall Leiermann, the Erlkönig Ballad, May Mao Live!, The Graphic Method Tractor and Probe.


Raaymakers gives lectures in Utrecht, The Hague and Amsterdam.


For the opening of the Art Faculty at Leiden University (planned for 2001) Raaymakers develops a lecture/performance called Experiment with a Tobacco Pipe. It literally repeats a scientific experiment from 1732 by the British physicist and inventor Stephen Gray while his report of the proceedings is translated for the audience by a chain of interpreters for the deaf.

Raaymakers is interviewed by the Theater Institute in Amsterdam and gives lectures in The Hague and Nijmegen.

Donemus/NEAR releases the CD-box The Complete Tape Music of Dick Raaymakers, a project in which Raaymakers himself is closely involved. The box contains the complete music tape work of Raaymakers, spanning a period of over forty years, from 1959 until 1998.

On September 6, VPRO TV airs the documentary The Electronic Poem: Edgar Varèse in the Netherlands, in which Raaymakers speaks at length about the time when Varèse was in the NatLab in Eindhoven to work on the composition for the Philips pavilion by Le Corbusier for the World Fair in Brussels.


At the Netherlands Architecture Institute Raaymakers is interviewed, together with Dutch musicologist Maarten Brandt, about "composed space." He also gives lectures in Alkmaar, Amsterdam, and Hasselt (Belgium).


In the series "Writings from the Orpheus Institute" Raaymakers writes CAHIER-M: A Brief Morphology of Electric Sound, published in both English and Dutch by the University Press Leuven (Belgium). In 2005 a new English translation is made by Richard Barrett.

During May and June Raaymakers produces two music-theater pieces: The Rendition and Concert for ...

The Rendition is a performance for a seven piece music ensemble, flame thrower and steel workers, given in a large square in Eindhoven. With this work Raaymakers makes an alternative, live soundtrack for the first Dutch sound film Philips-Radio (1930–1931) by Joris Ivens and Lou Lichtveld.

Concert for ... is a chamber music-theater piece based on the Triple Concert for violin, cello, piano and orchestra in C-major, opus 56 by Ludwig van Beethoven, fora solo cellist and a conductor with computerized hands, whose movements are converted by sensors into sampled orchestra sounds. In a mix, the conductors' computer assistants then try to match these sounds as well as they can to the live performance of the cellist.

In June Raaymakers finishes the piece Kwartet Heiliger Dankgesang, which concludes the Quartet cycle. It is performed this year, together with Concert for ..., at the Holland Festival in Amsterdam.

Raaymakers gives a lecture in Bilthoven and at the Kröller-Müller Museum.


At the Sonic Acts festival in Paradiso (Amsterdam) Raaymakers, together with astrophysicist Vincent Icke and conceptualist Taco Stolk, gives a presentation on the theme of "pixels." At the Rietveld Art Academy in Amsterdam he gives a lecture about "composed space," together with Maarten Brandt.


At Leiden University Raaymakers takes part in a discussion with Taco Stolk about the relationship between science and art.


Record label Basta Music releases the CD-box Popular Electronics. Early Dutch Electronic Music from Philips Research Laboratories 1956–1963, about the early years of Dutch electronic music, produced by Kees Tazelaar. Besides the complete electronic works of Tom Dissevelt and the ballet music of Henk Badings, the box contains the complete works of Kid Baltan, the alias under which Dick Raaymakers operated in his Philips years. Also included is the film music Raaymakers published under his own name, and his signature tunes for STER, the Dutch TV commercial break, and for the Bekaert steel company. Raaymakers is closely involved in the production of this CD-box.

Filmmaker Jacqueline Oskamp makes a documentary about and with Dick Raaymakers, called In Search of a Forgotten Application, which airs on August 11, by NPS TV. The documentary's leitmotiv is the report of a trip to the Marey Museum in Beaune (France).

Privately Raaymakers publishes The Destructive Character (1972–2003), a slightly rewritten version of A Brief Mechanics of the Open Form (1992).


On the occasion of his receiving a honorary doctorate from Leiden University, Raaymakers composes Ritual Moment, a work for three percussionists. These percussionists alternatingly let three heavy wooden beams drop to the floor of a church, on a slow schedule.

Raaymakers is given the Johan Wagenaar Award by the Johan Wagenaar Foundation, for his life time's achievements.


Compositions by Raaymakers are used for the soundtrack of the documentary 4Elements (Jiska Rickels, 2006).

At the STRP Festival in Eindhoven the CD: Various Artists – STRP1: Reactions To the Music of Dick Raaymakers (BASTA 3091 662) is released, containing fourteen remixes of early electronic works by Raaymakers.


scheitern lernen  |  het leren mislukken  |  to learn to fail, a hommage to Dick Raaymakers in Tesla, Berlin, curated by Anne Wellmer, with compositiions by Raaymakers and an exhibition of archive materials.


Method, an English translation by Vincent W.J. van Gerven Oei of Dick Raaymakers De Methode, is published by Onomatopee.


Dick Raaymakers receives the Witteveen + Bos Art + Technology Award for his entire oeuvre. Exhibition of his work at the Bergkerk in Deventer, featuring amongst others two recently reconstructed Ideofonen.

Work presented at the Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, at the Hear It! event.

The Destructive Character, edited and translated from Dutch to English by Vincent W.J. van Gerven Oei. is published by Onomatopee.


Exhibition of the reconstructed Ideofonen at the Dutch Electronic Art Festival in Rotterdam, and at NIMk in Amsterdam.


16 February, performance of Volta at Paradiso, Amsterdam.

4 September, Dick Raaymakers leaves 'this' world for 'that' world.

Document Actions
Document Actions
Personal tools
Log in